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3 Big Reasons Why You Must Audit Your Internal Links

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Link acquisition has been all the rage in SEO for as long as most of us can remember.

What is interesting is the lack of attention paid to internal linking vs. inbound linking.

Yes, inbound links are important for driving referrals and portraying brand and domain authority to search engines.

But your internal links serve three fundamental functions on your website.

Let’s dig into these three areas.

Read on to learn how to understand, optimize, and manage your website internal linking structure.

1. Internal Links Portray Page Importance to Search Engines

A healthy exercise for any organization is to sit down and list the role of the website.

Answer these two important questions:

  • What do you want each user to do when they visit?
  • What is most important about your site?

The answers will vary, but may sometimes be identical.

For example, we want every user to see what products and services we provide.

We also feel that this is our most valuable content. That for which is most important to us should also be of SEO focus as well considering that we want this content to rank well.

The more we link to our most valuable content, the more we can instruct to search engines that this is our most important content.

So, are you giving the love to your most important content?

Google Search Console - Links Section Screenshot

Google Search Console provides a great and important resource in their Links section.

You definitely want to pay attention to Google’s view of what you link to the most.

This will give you a holistic view of how well you are portraying what is important to you.

In the above example, we can see that this HVAC company has twice as many links to their bill pay page than to their service pages.

Also, all services are linked to equally.

Is toilet repair as important as furnace repair or air conditioning repair?

Again, ask yourself what your most valuable content is.

In this scenario, valuable can also mean that the company likely makes higher revenue from selling air conditioners versus toilets.

So how do we craft an internal linking structure that shows this hierarchy of content?

  • Ensure that your top pages are featured in the main navigation. If you have just a few products/services, resources, etc. then list these in main navigation via dropdowns or mega-menus. Note: work within reason, this doesn’t mean a 100 link main navigation!
  • Craft footer navigation that includes much of these same links that you feature in the main navigation.
  • Do you feature supporting navigation on internal site pages? Having a multiple column layout within internal pages is a great way to heighten internal linking as well as drafting easy pathways throughout your site for your users. This is also a great internal linking strategy if you have you have too many product/service, resource, etc. pages to feature all in your main navigation.
  • Do you feature breadcrumb navigation within internal site pages? This is essential for usability regarding very deep sites, yet also lends to heightened internal linking.
  • Mind the cross-sell approach to internal linking. Provide feature areas on internal pages to related services, products or other resource pages similar to the respective topic of a page.

2. Internal Links Usher Users to Conversions

Internal linking should not solely be a topic for SEO. It is the medium that delivers a landing page visitor to a successful site conversion.

For every site objective you have, you must design an intended pathway to your objective.

Let’s look at an example:

You want users to peruse your array of products, but you also want to focus on lead generation of your new webinar series.

Two objectives? No sweat.

Through analytical access, you understand that your homepage receives the highest amount of traffic, followed by your insightful blog section.

With this in mind, you’re going to internally link to your products section as well your new webinar series from the top fold of the homepage. This can be done via hero image sliders or feature area boxes.

You will then move to your blog template and ensure that you have a vertical column that features links to your webinar series.

Uniform product/service linking in a blog post template can seem a little tacky or pushy, but finding a way to internally link to applicable product/service pages from within post copy doesn’t hurt.

While the above example makes internal linking strategy seem easy, it often isn’t as you have to audit website user behavior to understand how they are traversing the site.

Google Analytics - Users Flow Feature Screenshot

A helpful practice is to use the Users Flow feature in Google Analytics and understand how users move through your site.

The trick is to use advanced segments where you only look at sessions with conversions as well as sessions without conversions.

Study the differences between the two.

Specifically, review the internal linking structure on pages in both of these pathways.

This will help you to understand how unsuccessful pages can mimic internal linking to help become successful pages.

Another point of consideration is not the amount of internal linking but understanding the successful positioning of internal links.

Lucky Orange is a great tool for this. There are other heatmap tools (e.g., Crazyegg, Hotjar) but I am quite fond of the entire suite for heatmap review as well as live recording and real-time data.

Here, I advise reviewing those converting and non-converting pages we found in Google Analytics within the heatmap section of the tool to understand where attention is paid on the page and if we need to consider moving internal links around on the page.

Are important links too far down the page where scroll depth is shallow?

Should you reorder main navigation to place important pages closer to where attention is being paid?

3 Big Reasons Why You Must Audit Your Internal Links

3. Internal Links Assist in Search Engine Crawling

While traditional HTML sitemaps and XML sitemaps are a great way to help search engines traverse across your site, how you internally link on your site can help search engines move quickly through your important site content – or you can seriously confuse them.

Here are a few ways to make crawling easier for search engines.

Make Sure You Aren’t Internally Linking to Redirecting Pages

This can happen in a HTTP to HTTPS transition or through URL naming convention changes.

When a search engine has to travel through a redirect, this slows their crawl.

Only Internally Link on Absolute URLs (Not Relative URLs)

Personally, this just ensures that you are visibly linking to the correct HTTP/HTTPS (or www) page version.

However, if you understand your link directive a relative link is fine with the consideration that you are using the <Base> href attribute.

Link to Canonical Page Versions

This may be one of my biggest internal linking pet peeves.

For example, when brand logo links and main navigation links will link to a duplicated “default.aspx” page or a duplicated page including or not including a trailing slash at the end of the URL.

Mistakes like these can quickly split the internal link priority that you are wishing to portray to the search engines.

Clean up your broken internal links

There are many third-party website monitoring tools that can help you to monitor broken links on your site.

However, Google Search Console features the Coverage section which will let you know how many 404 and soft 404 error pages you have on your site.

Furthermore, for each error URL, you can click through the magnifying glass at right to see which page on your site is linking to a 404 page.

GSC - Coverage section3 Big Reasons Why You Must Audit Your Internal Links

Having trouble finding that broken link once you visit the noted page?

Download the Chrome extension Check My Links to help uncover those broken internal links.

SEJ Homepage - Check My Links Plugin Screenshot

Internal Link Auditing – It’s Worth the Effort

Hopefully, to this point, you can see that internal link auditing is a critical and continuously ongoing process.

This is one of those beneficial areas where your efforts will be rewarded in multiple areas – SEO, conversion rate optimization, and usability.

More Resources:


Image Credits

Featured Image: Created by author, November 2018
All screenshots taken by author, November 2018

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Video: Chris Boggs on experience in the SEM industry

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Chris Boggs has been doing the SEO and SEM thing since 2000 — yes, for over 20 years. Boggs does both SEO and PPC and has worked at both large agencies and smaller agencies and in-house at both large companies and small companies. He has been on his own, running his own agency named Web Traffic Advisors, since 2014.

Boggs is a former US Marine and credits a lot of his success in the industry to what he learned from his service. He also credits his previous jobs and bosses with his success. We spoke about that and also chatted about some of the earlier days in SEM.

Our conversation went into some technical SEO topics and PPC topics as well. I hope you enjoy learning about Chris Boggs, he is a good man.

I started this vlog series recently, and if you want to sign up to be interviewed, you can fill out this form on Search Engine Roundtable. You can also subscribe to my YouTube channel by clicking here.


About The Author

Barry Schwartz a Contributing Editor to Search Engine Land and a member of the programming team for SMX events. He owns RustyBrick, a NY based web consulting firm. He also runs Search Engine Roundtable, a popular search blog on very advanced SEM topics. Barry’s personal blog is named Cartoon Barry and he can be followed on Twitter here.



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Leverage Python and Google Cloud to extract meaningful SEO insights from server log data

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For my first post on Search Engine Land, I’ll start by quoting Ian Lurie:

Log file analysis is a lost art. But it can save your SEO butt!

Wise words.

However, getting the data we need out of server log files is usually laborious:

  • Gigantic log files require robust data ingestion pipelines, a reliable cloud storage infrastructure, and a solid querying system
  • Meticulous data modeling is also needed in order to convert cryptic, raw logs data into legible bits, suitable for exploratory data analysis and visualization

In the first post of this two-part series, I will show you how to easily scale your analyses to larger datasets, and extract meaningful SEO insights from your server logs.

All of that with just a pinch of Python and a hint of Google Cloud!

Here’s our detailed plan of action:

#1 – I’ll start by giving you a bit of context:

  • What are log files and why they matter for SEO
  • How to get hold of them
  • Why Python alone doesn’t always cut it when it comes to server log analysis

#2 – We’ll then set things up:

  • Create a Google Cloud Platform account
  • Create a Google Cloud Storage bucket to store our log files
  • Use the Command-Line to convert our files to a compliant format for querying
  • Transfer our files to Google Cloud Storage, manually and programmatically

#3 – Lastly, we’ll get into the nitty-gritty of Pythoning – we will:

  • Query our log files with Bigquery, inside Colab!
  • Build a data model that makes our raw logs more legible 
  • Create categorical columns that will enhance our analyses further down the line
  • Filter and export our results to .csv

In part two of this series (available later this year), we’ll discuss more advanced data modeling techniques in Python to assess:

  • Bot crawl volume
  • Crawl budget waste
  • Duplicate URL crawling

I’ll also show you how to aggregate and join log data to Search Console data, and create interactive visualizations with Plotly Dash!

Excited? Let’s get cracking!

System requirements

We will use Google Colab in this article. No specific requirements or backward compatibility issues here, as Google Colab sits in the cloud.

Downloadable files

  • The Colab notebook can be accessed here 
  • The log files can be downloaded on Github – 4 sample files of 20 MB each, spanning 4 days (1 day per file)

Be assured that the notebook has been tested with several million rows at lightning speed and without any hurdles!

Preamble: What are log files?

While I don’t want to babble too much about what log files are, why they can be invaluable for SEO, etc. (heck, there are many great articles on the topic already!), here’s a bit of context.

A server log file records every request made to your web server for content.

Every. Single. One.

In their rawest forms, logs are indecipherable, e.g. here are a few raw lines from an Apache webserver:

Daunting, isn’t it?

Raw logs must be “cleansed” in order to be analyzed; that’s where data modeling kicks in. But more on that later.

Whereas the structure of a log file mainly depends on the server (Apache, Nginx, IIS etc…), it has evergreen attributes:

  • Server IP
  • Date/Time (also called timestamp)
  • Method (GET or POST)
  • URI
  • HTTP status code
  • User-agent

Additional attributes can usually be included, such as:

  • Referrer: the URL that ‘linked’ the user to your site
  • Redirected URL, when a redirect occurs
  • Size of the file sent (in bytes)
  • Time taken: the time it takes for a request to be processed and its response to be sent

Why are log files important for SEO?

If you don’t know why they matter, read this. Time spent wisely!

Accessing your log files

If you’re not sure where to start, the best is to ask your (client’s) Web Developer/DevOps if they can grant you access to raw server logs via FTP, ideally without any filtering applied.

Here are the general guidelines to find and manage log data on the three most popular servers:

We’ll use raw Apache files in this project.

Why Pandas alone is not enough when it comes to log analysis

Pandas (an open-source data manipulation tool built with Python) is pretty ubiquitous in data science.

It’s a must to slice and dice tabular data structures, and the mammal works like a charm when the data fits in memory!

That is, a few gigabytes. But not terabytes.

Parallel computing aside (e.g. Dask, PySpark), a database is usually a better solution for big data tasks that do not fit in memory. With a database, we can work with datasets that consume terabytes of disk space. Everything can be queried (via SQL), accessed, and updated in a breeze!

In this post, we’ll query our raw log data programmatically in Python via Google BigQuery. It’s easy to use, affordable and lightning-fast – even on terabytes of data!

The Python/BigQuery combo also allows you to query files stored on Google Cloud Storage. Sweet!

If Google is a nay-nay for you and you wish to try alternatives, Amazon and Microsoft also offer cloud data warehouses. They integrate well with Python too:

Amazon:

Microsoft:

Create a GCP account and set-up Cloud Storage

Both Google Cloud Storage and BigQuery are part of Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Google’s suite of cloud computing services.

GCP is not free, but you can try it for a year with $300 credits, with access to all products. Pretty cool.

Note that once the trial expires, Google Cloud Free Tier will still give you access to most Google Cloud resources, free of charge. With 5 GB of storage per month, it’s usually enough if you want to experiment with small datasets, work on proof of concepts, etc…

Believe me, there are many. Great. Things. To. Try!

You can sign-up for a free trial here.

Once you have completed sign-up, a new project will be automatically created with a random, and rather exotic, name – e.g. mine was “learned-spider-266010“!

Create our first bucket to store our log files

In Google Cloud Storage, files are stored in “buckets”. They will contain our log files.

To create your first bucket, go to storage > browser > create bucket:

The bucket name has to be unique. I’ve aptly named mine ‘seo_server_logs’!

We then need to choose where and how to store our log data:

  • #1 Location type – ‘Region’ is usually good enough.
  • #2 Location – As I’m based in the UK, I’ve selected ‘Europe-West2’. Select your nearest location
  • #3 Click on ‘continue’

Default storage class: I’ve had good results with ‘nearline‘. It is cheaper than standard, and the data is retrieved quickly enough:

Access to objects: “Uniform” is fine:

Finally, in the “advanced settings” block, select:

  • #1 – Google-managed key
  • #2 – No retention policy
  • #3 – No need to add a label for now

When you’re done, click “‘create.”

You’ve created your first bucket! Time to upload our log data.

Adding log files to your Cloud Storage bucket

You can upload as many files as you wish, whenever you want to!

The simplest way is to drag and drop your files to Cloud Storage’s Web UI, as shown below:

Yet, if you really wanted to get serious about log analysis, I’d strongly suggest automating the data ingestion process!

Here are a few things you can try:

  • Cron jobs can be set up between FTP servers and Cloud Storage infrastructures: 
  • FTP managers like Cyberduck also offer automatic transfers to storage systems, too
  • More data ingestion tips here (AppEngine, JSON API etc.)

A quick note on file formats

The sample files uploaded in Github have already been converted to .csv for you.

Bear in mind that you may have to convert your own log files to a compliant file format for SQL querying. Bigquery accepts .csv or .parquet. 

Files can easily be bulk-converted to another format via the command line. You can access the command line as follows on Windows:

  • Open the Windows Start menu
  • Type “command” in the search bar
  • Select “Command Prompt” from the search results
  • I’ve not tried this on a Mac, but I believe the CLI is located in the Utilities folder

Once opened, navigate to the folder containing the files you want to convert via this command:

CD 'path/to/folder’

Simply replace path/to/folder with your path.

Then, type the command below to convert e.g. .log files to .csv:

for file in *.log; do mv "$file" "$(basename "$file" .*0).csv"; done

Note that you may need to enable Windows Subsystem for Linux to use this Bash command.

Now that our log files are in, and in the right format, it’s time to start Pythoning!

Unleash the Python

Do I still need to present Python?!

According to Stack Overflow, Python is now the fastest-growing major programming language. It’s also getting incredibly popular in the SEO sphere, thanks to Python preachers like Hamlet or JR.

You can run Python on your local computer via Jupyter notebook or an IDE, or even in the cloud via Google Colab. We’ll use Google Colab in this article.

Remember, the notebook is here, and the code snippets are pasted below, along with explanations.

Import libraries + GCP authentication

We’ll start by running the cell below:

It imports the Python libraries we need and redirects you to an authentication screen.

There you’ll have to choose the Google account linked to your GCP project.

Connect to Google Cloud Storage (GCS) and BigQuery

There’s quite a bit of info to add in order to connect our Python notebook to GCS & BigQuery. Besides, filling in that info manually can be tedious!

Fortunately, Google Colab’s forms make it easy to parameterize our code and save time.

The forms in this notebook have been pre-populated for you. No need to do anything, although I do suggest you amend the code to suit your needs.

Here’s how to create your own form: Go to Insert > add form field > then fill in the details below:

When you change an element in the form, its corresponding values will magically change in the code!

Fill in ‘project ID’ and ‘bucket location’

In our first form, you’ll need to add two variables:

  • Your GCP PROJECT_ID (mine is ‘learned-spider-266010′)
  • Your bucket location:
    • To find it, in GCP go to storage > browser > check location in table
    • Mine is ‘europe-west2′

Here’s the code snippet for that form:

Fill in ‘bucket name’ and ‘file/folder path’:

In the second form, we’ll need to fill in two more variables:

The bucket name:

  • To find it, in GCP go to: storage > browser > then check its ‘name’ in the table
  • I’ve aptly called it ‘apache_seo_logs’!

The file path:

  • You can use a wildcard to query several files – Very nice!
  • E.g. with the wildcarded path ‘Loggy*’, Bigquery would query these three files at once:
    • Loggy01.csv
    • Loggy02.csv
    • Loggy03.csv
  • Bigquery also creates a temporary table for that matter (more on that below)

Here’s the code for the form:

Connect Python to Google Cloud Storage and BigQuery

In the third form, you need to give a name to your BigQuery table – I’ve called mine ‘log_sample’. Note that this temporary table won’t be created in your Bigquery account.

Okay, so now things are getting really exciting, as we can start querying our dataset via SQL *without* leaving our notebook – How cool is that?!

As log data is still in its raw form, querying it is somehow limited. However, we can apply basic SQL filtering that will speed up Pandas operations later on.

I have created 2 SQL queries in this form:

  • “SQL_1st_Filter” to filter any text
  • “SQL_Useragent_Filter” to select your User-Agent, via a drop-down

Feel free to check the underlying code and tweak these two queries to your needs.

If your SQL trivia is a bit rusty, here’s a good refresher from Kaggle!

Code for that form:

Converting the list output to a Pandas Dataframe

The output generated by BigQuery is a two-dimensional list (also called ‘list of lists’). We’ll need to convert it to a Pandas Dataframe via this code:

Done! We now have a Dataframe that can be wrangled in Pandas!

Data cleansing time, the Pandas way!

Time to make these cryptic logs a bit more presentable by:

  • Splitting each element
  • Creating a column for each element

Split IP addresses

Split dates and times

We now need to convert the date column from string to a “Date time” object, via the Pandas to_datetime() method:

Doing so will allow us to perform time-series operations such as:

  • Slicing specific date ranges 
  • Resampling time series for different time periods (e.g. from day to month)
  • Computing rolling statistics, such as a rolling average

The Pandas/Numpy combo is really powerful when it comes to time series manipulation, check out all you can do here!

More split operations below:

Split domains

Split methods (Get, Post etc…)

Split URLs

Split HTTP Protocols

Split status codes

Split ‘time taken’

Split referral URLs

Split User Agents

Split redirected URLs (when existing)

Reorder columns

Time to check our masterpiece:

Well done! With just a few lines of code, you converted a set of cryptic logs to a structured Dataframe, ready for exploratory data analysis.

Let’s add a few more extras.

Create categorical columns

These categorical columns will come handy for data analysis or visualization tasks. We’ll create two, paving the way for your own experiments!

Create an HTTP codes class column

Create a search engine bots category column

As you can see, our new columns httpCodeClass and SEBotClass have been created:

Spotting ‘spoofed’ search engine bots

We still need to tackle one crucial step for SEO: verify that IP addresses are genuinely from Googlebots.

All credit due to the great Tyler Reardon for this bit! Tyler has created  searchtools.io, a clever tool that checks IP addresses and returns ‘fake’ Googlebot ones, based on a reverse DNS lookup.

We’ve simply integrated that script into the notebook – code snippet below:

Running the cell above will create a new column called ‘isRealGbot?:

Note that the script is still in its early days, so please consider the following caveats:

  • You may get errors when checking a huge amount of IP addresses. If so, just bypass the cell
  • Only Googlebots are checked currently

Tyler and I are working on the script to improve it, so keep an eye on Twitter for future enhancements!

Filter the Dataframe before final export

If you wish to further refine the table before exporting to .csv, here’s your chance to filter out status codes you don’t need and refine timescales.

Some common use cases:

  • You have 12 months’ worth of log data stored in the cloud, but only want to review the last 2 weeks
  • You’ve had a recent website migration and want to check all the redirects (301s, 302s, etc.) and their redirect locations
  • You want to check all 4XX response codes

Filter by date 

Refine start and end dates via this form:

Filter by status codes

Check status codes distribution before filtering:

Code:

Then filter HTTP status codes via this form:

Related code:

Export to .csv 

Our last step is to export our Dataframe to a .csv file. Give it a name via the export form:

Code for that last form:

Pat on the back if you’ve followed till here! You’ve achieved so much over the course of this article!

I cannot wait to take it to the next level in my next column, with more advanced data modeling/visualization techniques!

I’d like to thank the following people:

  • Tyler Reardon, who’s helped me to integrate his anti-spoofing tool into this notebook!
  • Paul Adams from Octamis and my dear compatriot Olivier Papon for their expert advice
  • Last but not least, Kudos to Hamlet Batista or JR Oakes – Thanks guys for being so inspirational to the SEO community!

Please reach me out on Twitter if questions, or if you need further assistance. Any feedback (including pull requests! :)) is also greatly appreciated!

Happy Pythoning!

This year’s SMX Advanced will feature a brand-new SEO for Developers track with highly-technical sessions – many in live-coding format – focused on using code libraries and architecture models to develop applications that improve SEO. SMX Advanced will be held June 8-10 in Seattle. Register today.


Opinions expressed in this article are those of the guest author and not necessarily Search Engine Land. Staff authors are listed here.


About The Author

Charly Wargnier is a seasoned digital marketing consultant based in the UK, leaning on over a decade of in-the-trenches SEO, BI and Data engineering experience. Charly has worked both in-house and agency-side, primarily for large enterprises in Retail and Fashion, and on a wide range of fronts including complex technical SEO issues, site performance, data pipelining and visualization frameworks. When he isn’t working, he enjoys coding for good and spending quality time with his family – cooking, listening to Jazz music and playing chess, in no particular order!



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Microsoft Office hits pause on forcing Bing search in Chrome, Firefox

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Microsoft recently announced a new “extension” as part of an update to its Office 365 ProPlus software that forcibly changes company-wide Chrome and Firefox search engine defaults to Bing search, automatically, from what is likely set to Google. After considerable backlash, the company is reversing course, a bit.

In a predatory fashion, the extension automatically seeks out, through the network and local device file systems, installations of independent browsers (Chrome and Firefox were mentioned) in order to edit configuration files outside its own software ecosystem.

A compromise

In a halfhearted reversal, Microsoft will compromise with modifications that comply more with administrators’ wishes to make the extension optional. This will result in a timeline delay, as well. Rather than automatically changing default search engines for Chrome and Firefox to Bing, administrators are now required to opt-in for it to do so, and actions will initially be limited to only Active Directory joined devices.

This means, at first, the extension won’t act like a worm that traverses the whole network looking for vulnerable computers — until sometime “in the future.”

In the future we will add specific settings to govern the deployment of the extension to unmanaged devices. 

Microsoft

It’s still troubling Microsoft plans to do this but is understandable when considering what is often done in tandem with an organization’s rules. IT infrastructure setup and maintenance require super-user levels of control over software installation and configuration settings.

The problem is when organizations are less restrictive, allowing users to install Chrome and Firefox rather than limit them to using Microsoft Edge or past versions of IE. Browser applications get very personalized when authenticated with Google and/or Firefox Accounts for services such as Google search.

No matter how convenient the ability to search for docs and refs from shared drives and Microsoft applications via Chrome and Firefox default search is, users of those browsers should be able to do that through company resources and manage search defaults on their own.

Security implications

In more restrictive organizations, like those that require secure access to sensitive information by authenticated staff, having “overlord” control over networked machines is a vital component of IT systems operations. In those cases, it is commonplace to disallow software installations in the first place.

It stands to reason security incidents can increase when browser search with Microsoft in Bing accesses network resources. Administrators have to take care when considering such applications. They certainly didn’t ask for the features the new extension provides and rightly view the move as one of pure marketing.

It’s when users are allowed to install programs that policy and operations should be less impinging. Automatically changing default search settings to Bing while only providing last-minute instructions for administrators who must take action to prevent the extension from executing was a very poor way to introduce a controversial procedure in Office 365 setup.

Why we care

Ironically, ink from the press about the backlash gave the search capability of Microsoft in Bing a spotlight that the extension may not have received otherwise. Microsoft should not resort to leveraging its Office 365 install base to switch user-defined search defaults from a desired choice to Bing in order to unfairly compete. It demonstrates how much it would like to take search market share away from Google. Bing integrated with Microsoft search competes fairly well with its unique results from network resources, something Google can only emulate with its own suite of interoperable services appearing in search results.


About The Author

Detlef Johnson is the SEO for Developers Expert for Search Engine Land and SMX. He is also a member of the programming team for SMX events and writes the SEO for Developers series on Search Engine Land. Detlef is one of the original group of pioneering webmasters who established the professional SEO field more than 20 years ago. Since then he has worked for major search engine technology providers, managed programming and marketing teams for Chicago Tribune, and consulted for numerous entities including Fortune 500 companies. Detlef has a strong understanding of Technical SEO and a passion for Web programming.



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